PKey Report
PKC842
TITLETiryns: Citadel
WGS84 37.599028° N, 22.800316° E
Accuracy Exact

LAT/LON 37.599028, 22.800316
LON/LAT 22.800316, 37.599028

DMS 37° 35' 56.5008" N,22° 48' 1.1376" E

W3Winstinct, outdoes, figs
UTM34 S, 658926, 4162852
EGSA87 393949, 4161717

Elevation m26
Elevation feet 85.3
RegionArgolid





GENERAL SITE TYPE  Settlement

TYPE

1.    Buildings.   Simpson and Dickinson [1979], 42    'In EH II the whole Citadel may have been covered with buildings, ... '

2.    Settlement.   Simpson [1981], 20    'The citadel of Tiryns occupied a long and low oval-shaped limestone outcrop, of maximum dimensions about 300 m. north to south by 100 m. About 22,000 m.2 were enclosed within the walls.'

3.    Settlement.   Zangger [1994], 189    ' ... the Late Bronze Age citadel of Tiryns ... '

4.    Settlement.   Simpson and Dickinson [1979], 42    'Already in EH II there were extensive traces of settlement on the level ground surrounding the Citadel, ... '

SITE SIZE

- Simpson [1981]  p. 20,  Size: 22000 sq. m.  'About 22,000 m.2 were enclosed within the walls.'

- Simpson and Dickinson [1979]  p. 41,  Size: 22000 sq. m.  ' ... (about 22,000 sq. m. enclosed within the walls).'



PERIOD (High Chronology)

1. EH I: (3100 BC - 2700 BC)

    a.    Simpson [1981]: 20 '... EH I-III MH LH I-IIIC SMyc ...'

2. EH II: (2700 BC - 2200 BC)

    a.    Simpson [1981]: 20 '... EH I-III MH LH I-IIIC SMyc ...'

    b.    Zangger [1994]: 192 ' ..., the earliest building remains date to Early Helladic II.'

    c.    Simpson and Dickinson [1979]: 41 'In EH II the whole Citadel may have been covered with buildings, ... ', ' ... after the EH II destruction remains of occupation are sporadic'

3. EH III: (2200 BC - 2000 BC)

    a.    Simpson [1981]: 20 '... EH I-III MH LH I-IIIC SMyc ...'

    b.    Zangger [1994]: 192 'Stratified EH II and EH III layers are known from the lower citadel ... '

4. Middle Helladic: (2000 BC - 1600 BC)

    a.    Simpson [1981]: 20 '... EH I-III MH LH I-IIIC SMyc ...'

    b.    Zangger [1994]: 192 ' ..., where stratified MH layers were found ... '

    c.    Simpson and Dickinson [1979]: 41 ' ... indications of terracing on the east before the end of MH have been thought to indicate fortification in this period, ... '

5. Late Helladic: (1700 BC - 1050 BC)

    a.    Simpson and Dickinson [1979]: 41 ' ..., seems to indicate that this was the site of a series of palatial buildings stretching back to early Mycenaean times ... '

6. Late Helladic I: (1700 BC - 1635 BC)

    a.    Simpson [1981]: 20 '... EH I-III MH LH I-IIIC SMyc ...'

7. Late Helladic II: (1635 BC - 1410 BC)

    a.    Simpson [1981]: 20 '... EH I-III MH LH I-IIIC SMyc ...'

    b.    Zangger [1994]: 192 'Very little could be traced of the earliest noble residence at Tiryns (LH II, ... '

8. LH III: (1410 BC - 1060 BC)

    a.    Simpson and Dickinson [1979]: 41 ' ... beneath the LH III Palace, ... '

9. LH IIIA: (1410 BC - 1315 BC)

    a.    Zangger [1994]: 192 ' ...; better known is the palace of the LH IIIA period (ca. 1425 - 1300 B.C.; ... '

10. LH IIIA2: (1375 BC - 1320 BC)

    a.    Simpson [1981]: 20 'The Upper Citadel was probably first fortified in the LH IIIA2 period, ...'

    b.    Simpson and Dickinson [1979]: 41 'The Upper Citadel was probably first fortified in LH IIIA2, at roughly the same time as Mycenae; ... '

11. LH IIIB: (1320 BC - 1190 BC)

    a.    Simpson [1981]: 20 '...tunnels through the walls to an underground water supply, can be closely dated, to a late phase of the LH IIIB period.'

    b.    Zangger [1994]: 192 'The present foundations of the palace ... date to around 1250 B.C. (LH IIIB), ... '

12. LH IIIB2: (1250 BC - 1190 BC)

    a.    Simpson [1981]: 20 'Recent investigation of the Lower Citadel has concentrated on the LH IIIB2 and LH IIIC phases...'

13. LH IIIC: (1190 BC - 1060 BC)

    a.    Simpson [1981]: 20 '...reoccupation...', 'Recent investigation of the Lower Citadel has concentrated on the LH IIIB2 and LH IIIC phases...'

    b.    Zangger [1994]: 192 'Later in LH IIIC Tiryns experienced a phase of recovery, when the settlement was thoroughly redesigned and rebuilt.'

    c.    Simpson and Dickinson [1979]: 42 'The best evidence for LH IIIC reoccupation is to be found in the Lower Citadel; ... '

14. Geometric: (900 BC - 700 BC)

    a.    Zangger [1994]: 192 'A Geometric temple and cemetery are known from the area, ... '

    b.    Simpson and Dickinson [1979]: 42 ' ... G pottery has been found ... '

15. Archaic: (700 BC - 480 BC)

    a.    Simpson and Dickinson [1979]: 42 ' ... and by A times a sanctuary appears to have been established on the Upper Citadel: ... '


NOTE

1.  The bibliography of Tiryns is extensive. The interested reader may consult the older bibliography in Simpson [1981], 20 ff. For items up through 2002 see Feuer [2004], Mycenaean Civilization; An Annotated Bibliography through 2002, in particular items 2015-2028. For newer items the reader might look into the on-line BA course prepared by Dr. Rutter. Search for 'Tiryns' on this page. There is also a good bibliography in Maran [2015], 'Tiryns and the Argolid in Mycenaean times; New clues and interpretations' which is part of the volume edited by Schallin and Tournavitou, Mycenaeans up to date. Dr. Maran's paper is here.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.  Simpson [1981]:  Simpson, Richard Hope. Mycenaean Greece. Park Ridge, New Jersey: Noyes Press, 1981., 'A 10 Tiryns; 1. The Citadel', pg. 20. Online here.

2.  Simpson and Dickinson [1979]:  Simpson, Richard Hope and O.T.P.K. Dickinson. A Gazetteer of Aegean Civilization in the Bronze Age, Vol. I: The Mainland and the Islands. Paul Åströms Förlag, Goteborg. 1979., 'A 7 Ancient Tiryns', pg. 41. Online here.

3.  Zangger [1994]:  Zangger, Eberhard. ‘Landscape Changes around Tiryns during the Bronze Age’, American Journal of Archaeology (98:2) 189-212. 1994., 'Excavations', pg. 192. Online here.